ISSN 1300-1868
 

Original Research (Original Article) 


Recent Trends in the Labour Markets: Technology, Globalisation and Offshoring

İ. Semih AKÇOMAK.

Abstract
In this paper we discuss the labour market implications of globalisation, product fragmentation and outsourcing. We live in a world where goods, services, capital, labour and ideas are mobile -a fact that reinforces globalisation of production. Recent trends show that there is polarisation in employment and wages. First we look at the causes of these trends. Then we discuss several indicators to measure globalisation of production. We discuss the recent literature in detail differentiating among studies that use data at the person, firm, occupation and industry level. We conclude with a specific reference to labour market implicatons of globalisation of production in Turkey.

Key words: Outsourcing, offshoring, technology, labour market, globalisation of production. JEL Classification: F16, J24, O33.



İŞGÜCÜ PİYASASINDAKİ GÜNCEL DİNAMİKLER: TEKNOLOJİ, KÜRESELLEŞME VE İTHAL GİRDİ KULLANIMI

Ozet
Bu makalede üretim parçalanması modeli ve ara malı ticaretine dayanan üretim örgütlenmesinin işgücü piyasalarına etkisi tartışılmıştır. Ürünlerin, sermayenin, emeğin ve fikirlerin serbestçe dolaşabildiği günümüz ekonomisi, üretimin küreselleşmesine ortam sağlamaktadır. Üretimin küreselleşmesi, işgücü piyasalarında dönüşüme neden olmaktadır. Uzmanlaşma artmakta, meslek tanımları hızla değişmekte ve ücret eşitsizliği hem gelişmiş hem de gelişmekte olan ülkelerde artmaktadır. Bu makalede, küreselleşme sonucu ortaya çıkan değişimleri daha iyi analiz edebilmek için gerekli olan araçlar kısaca özetlenmiştir. İlk olarak üretim örgütlenmesinin neden değişmekte olduğu üzerinde durulmuş, daha sonra bu değişimi ifade eden göstergeler irdelenmiştir. İthal girdi kullanımının işgücü piyasalarını hangi mekanizmalar vasıtasıyla etkilediği, konu üzerindeki araştırmaların bulguları vasıtasıyla tartışılmıştır. Bu tartışmada daha çok uygulamalı iktisat yazınından yararlanılmış ve sanayi, işletme, meslek ve kişi düzeyindeki araştırmaların bulguları incelenmiştir. Sonuç kısmı Türkiye üzerine kısa bir tartışma içermektedir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Küreselleşme, ithal girdi kullanımı, teknoloji, işgücü piyasası. JEL Sınıflaması: F16, J24, O33.


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by İ. Semih AKÇOMAK
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 3339
Downloaded: 692
Cited: 0


REFERENCES
Acemoglu, D. (1998), Why Do New Technologies Complement Skills? Directed Technical Change and Wage Inequality, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113, 1055-1089. [DOI via Crossref]   
Ak�omak, S., Borghans, L. & ter Weel, B. (2011), "Measuring and interpreting trends in the division of labour in the Netherlands", De Economist, 159(4), 435-482 [DOI via Crossref]   
Ak�omak, S., Kok, S., & Rojas-Romagosa, H. (2012), "The effects of technology and offshoring on changes in employment and the task-content of occupations", CPB Discussion Paper No: 233.
Amiti, M & Wei, S.J. (2005), Fear of service offshoring, Economic Policy, 20(2), 307-347.
Anderton, B. & Brenton, P. (1999), Outsourcing and low-skilled workers in the UK, Bulletin of Economic Research, 51(4), 267-285. [DOI via Crossref]   
Antras, P. & Helpman, E. (2004), Global Sourcing, Journal of Political Economy, 112, 552-580. [DOI via Crossref]   
Autor, D.H., Katz, L.F. & Kearney, M. (2006), The polarization of the U.S. labor market, American Economic Review, 96(2), 189-194. [DOI via Crossref]   
Autor, D.H., Levy, F. & Murnane, R.J. (2002), Upstairs, Downstairs: Computers and skills on two floors of a large bank, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 55(3), 432-447. [DOI via Crossref]   
Autor, D.H., Levy, F. & Murnane, R.J. (2003), The skill content of recent technological change: An empirical exploration, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118(4), 1279-1333. [DOI via Crossref]   
Bhagwati, J., Panagariyave, A. & Srinivasan, T. (2004), The muddles over outsourcing, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(4), 93-114. [DOI via Crossref]   
Baldwin, R. (2006), Globalisation: the great unbundlings, Globalisation Challenges for Europe and Finland toplant�s� sunumu.
Baldwin, R. (2009), Integration of the north American economy and new-paradigm globalisation, CEPR Discussion Paper No: 7523.
Baldwin, R. & Robert-Nicoud, R. (2014), Trade-in-Goods and trade-in-tasks: An integrating framework, Journal of International Economics, 92(1), 51-62. [DOI via Crossref]   
Baumgarten, D., Geishecker., & G�rg, H. (2013), Offshoring, tasks and the skill-wage pattern, European Economic Review, 61, 132-152. [DOI via Crossref]   
Becker, S., Ekholm, K. & Muendler, M.A. (2013), Offshoring and the onshore compositon of tasks and skills, Journal of International Economics, 91(1), 91-106. [DOI via Crossref]   
Berman, E., Bound, J. & Machin, S. (1998), The implications of skill-biased technological change: International evidence, Quarterly Jounal of Economics, 113 (4), 1245-1279. [DOI via Crossref]   
Blinder, A.S. (2006), Offshoring: The next industrial revolution, Foreign Affairs, 85(2), 113-128. [DOI via Crossref]   
Blinder, A.S. (2009), How many U.S. jobs might be offshorable, World Economics, 10(2), 41-78.
Bloom, N., Garicano, L., Sadun, R. & van Reenen, J. (2009), The distinct effects of information technology and communication technology on firm organization, NBER Working Paper No: 14975.
Borensztein, E., de Gregorio, J. & Lee, J.W. (1998), How does foreign direct investment affect economic growth?, Journal of International Economics, 45, 115-135. [DOI via Crossref]   
Borghans, L.& ter Weel, B. (2006), The division of labour, worker organisation and technological change, Economic Journal, 116(509), F45-F72. [DOI via Crossref]   
Caroli, E. & van Reenen, J. (2001), Skill biased organizational change? Evidence from British and French establishments, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116(4), 1448-1492. [DOI via Crossref]   
Ceylan, C. (2010), K�reselle�menin Sekt�rel Etkileri [The sectoral effects of globalisation], �stanbul Ticaret Odas� Yay�nlar�: �stanbul. Crin�, R. (2007), Offshoring, Multinationals and Labor market: A review of the Empirical Literature, CESPRI Working Paper No: 196. Crin�, R. (2010), Service offshoring and white-collar employment, Review of Economic Studies, 77(2), 595-632
Criscuolo, C. & Garicano, L. (2010), Offshoring and Wage Inequality: Using Occupational Licensing as a Shifter of Offshoring Costs, American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 100(2), 439-443. [DOI via Crossref]   
�a�kurlu, S. (2010), K�reselle�en i�g�c�n�n krizi ve k�resel e�itsizlik [The crises of globalized workforce and global unemployment], Ekonomik Yakla��m, 21(77), 49-100.
Deardorff, A. (2001), Fragmentation in simple trade models, North American Journal of Economics and Finance, 12(2), 121-137. [DOI via Crossref]   
Deardorff, A. (2005), A trade theorist's take on skilled-labor outsourcing, International Review of Economics and Finance, 14, 259-271. [DOI via Crossref]   
Ditmarr, J. (2010) Information technology and economic change: the impact of the printing press, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 126(3), 1133-1172. [DOI via Crossref]   
Ebenstein, A., Harrison, A., McMillan, M. & Phillips, S. (2009), Estimating the impact of trade and offshoring on American workers using the current population surveys, NBER Working Paper No: 15107.
Egger, H. & Egger, P. (2005), Labor market effects of outsourcing under industrial interdependence, International Review of Economics and Finance, 14, 349-363. [DOI via Crossref]   
Egger, H., Pfaffermayr, M. & Weber, A. (2007), Sectoral adjustments of employment to shifts in outsourcing and trade: Evidence from a dynamic fixed effects multinomial logit model, Journal of Applied Econometrics, 22, 559-580. [DOI via Crossref]   
Feenstra, R.C. & Hanson, G. (1996), Globalization, outsourcing and wage inequality, American Economic Review, 86(2), 240-245.
Feenstra, R.C. (1998), Integration of trade and disintegration of production in the global economy, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12(4), 31-50. [DOI via Crossref]   
Feenstra, R.C. & Hanson, G. (2001), Global production sharing and rising inequality: A survey of trade and wages, NBER Working Paper 8372.
Friedman, T. (2005), World is Flat. A Brief History of the Twentieth History, New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
Firpo, S., Fortin, N. & Lemieux, T. (2011), Occupational tasks and changes in the wage structure, IZA Discusssion Paper No: 5542, IZA: Bonn.
Glass, A.J & Saggi, K. (2001), Innovation and wage effects of international outsourcing, European Economic Review, 45, 67-86. [DOI via Crossref]   
Goldberg, P.K. & Pavcnik, N. (2007), Distributional effects of globalisation in developing countries, Journal of Economic Literature, 45(1), 39-82. [DOI via Crossref]   
Goos, M. & Manning, A. (2007), Lousy and lovely jobs: The rising polarization of work in Britain, Review of Economics and Statistics, 89(1), 118-133. [DOI via Crossref]   
Goos, M., Manning, A. & Salomons, A. (2009), Job polarisation in Europe, American Economic Review, 99(2), 58-63. [DOI via Crossref]   
Goos, M., Manning, A. & Salomons, A. (2010), Explaining job polarization in Europe: The roles of technology, globalization and institutions, CEPR Discussion Paper No: 1026, CEPR: Londra.
Gottschalk, P. & Smeeding, T.M. (1997), Source Cross-National Comparisons of Earnings and Income Inequality, Journal of Economic Literature, 35(2), 633-687.
G�rg, H. & Hanley, A. (2005), Labour demand effects of international outsourcing: Evidence from plant-level data, International Review of Economics and Finance, 14, 365-376.
G�rg, H. & Hanley, A. (2011), Services outsourcing and innovation: An empirical investigation, Economic Inquiry, 49(2), 321-333.
Groot, S., Ak�omak, S. & de Groot, H. (2012), The impact of trade, offshoring and multinationals on job loss and job finding: Evidence from Dutch micro data, CPB Discussion Paper No: 252, CPB: Lahey.
Grossman, G.M. & Helpman, E. (2004), Manegerial incentives and international organization of production, Journal of International Economics, 48(1), 37-70.
Grossman, G.M. & Rossi-Hansberg, E. (2006), The rise of offshoring: It's not wine for cloth anymore, Kansas Fed, Merkez Bankac�lar i�in Jackson Hole konferans�nda sunulan bildiri. http://www.kansascityfed.org/Publicat/sympos/2006/PDF/8GrossmanandRossi-Hansberg.pdf, eri�im tarihi 21.08.2014.
Grossman, G.M. & Rossi-Hansberg, E. (2008), Trading tasks: A simple theory of offshoring, American Economic Review, 98(5), 1978-1997. [DOI via Crossref]   
Harrison, A. & McMillan, M. (2011), Offshoring jobs? Multinationals and US manufacturing employment, Review of Economics and Statistics, 93(3), 857-875. [DOI via Crossref]   
Egger, H. & Egger, P. (2005), Labor market effects of outsourcing under industrial interdependence, International Review of Economics and Finance, 14(3), 349-63. [DOI via Crossref]   
Head, K., Mayer, T. & Ries, J. (2009), How remote is the offshoring threat?, European Economic Review, 53(4), 429-444. [DOI via Crossref]   
Hijzen, A., G�rg, H. & Hine, R. (2005), International outsourcing and the skill structure of labour demand in the United Kingdom, Economic Journal, 115, 860-878. [DOI via Crossref]   
Jensen, J.B. & Kletzer, L.G. (2005), Tradable services: Understanding the scope and impact of services offshoring, Institute for International Economics Woking Paper no: 05-9.
Lindbeck, A. & Snower, D.J. (2000), Multitask learning and the reorganization of work: from Tayloristic to holistic organization, Journal of Labor Economics, 18(3), 353-76. [DOI via Crossref]   
Liu, R. & Trefler, D. (2008), Much ado about nothing: American jobs and the rise of service outsourcing to China and India, NBER Working Paper 14061.
Mankiw, N.G., & Swagel, P. (2006), The politics and economics of offshore outsourcing, Journal of Monetary Economics, 53(5), 1027-1056. [DOI via Crossref]   
Meschi, E., Taymaz, E. & Vivarelli, M. (2011), Trade, openness and the demand for skills: Evidence from Turkish microdata, Labour Economics, 18(S1), S60-S70. [DOI via Crossref]   
Michel, B. & Rycx, F. (2009), Does offshoring of materials and business services affect employment? Evidence from a small open economy, IZA Discussion Paper No:4164, IZA: Bonn.
Moser, C.., Urban, D.M., & di Mauro, B.W. (2009), Offshoring, firm performance, and establishment-level employment: Identifying productivity and downsizing effects, CEPR Working Paper No: 7455, CEPR: Londra.
Munch, J.R. (2010), Whose job goes abroad? International outsourcing and individual job separations, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 112(2), 339-360. [DOI via Crossref]   
OECD (2007), Staying Competitive in the Global Economy. Moving up the Value Chain. OECD: Paris.
OECD (2008), The Internationalisation of business R&D. Evidence, impacts and implications, OECD: Paris.
Oldenski, L. (2010), The task composition of offshoring by US multinationals, taslak makale 2010 TASK workshop. Nurnberg. Sayg�l�, �., Cengiz, C., Yal��n, C. & Hamsici Brand, T. (2012), T�rkiye imalat sanayiinde ithal girdi kullan�m� [Import content of production in the Turkish manufacturing industry], �ktisat, ��letme ve Finans, 27(321), 9-38.
Spitz-Oener, A. (2006), Technical change, job tasks, and rising educational demands: Looking outside the wage structure, Journal of Labor Economics, 24(2), 235-270. [DOI via Crossref]   
Taymaz, E., Voyvoda, E. & Y�lmaz, K. (2011), Uluslararas� �retim Zincirlerinde D�n���m ve T�rkiye'nin Konumu [Transition in international value-chains and the position of Turkey], TUSIAD-Ko� �niversitesi Ekonomik Ara�t�rma Forumu: �stanbul.
Van Velsum, D. & Vickery, G. (2004), Potential Offshoring of ICT-intensive using Occupations, OECD: Paris.

How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

I. Semih AKCOMAK. [Recent Trends in the Labour Markets: Technology, Globalisation and Offshoring]. Ekonomik Yaklasim. 2013; 24(88): 65-100. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.35202


Web Style

I. Semih AKCOMAK. [Recent Trends in the Labour Markets: Technology, Globalisation and Offshoring]. http://www.ekonomikyaklasim.org/?mno=168224 [Access: August 19, 2019]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.35202


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

I. Semih AKCOMAK. [Recent Trends in the Labour Markets: Technology, Globalisation and Offshoring]. Ekonomik Yaklasim. 2013; 24(88): 65-100. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.35202



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

I. Semih AKCOMAK. [Recent Trends in the Labour Markets: Technology, Globalisation and Offshoring]. Ekonomik Yaklasim. (2013), [cited August 19, 2019]; 24(88): 65-100. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.35202



Harvard Style

I. Semih AKCOMAK (2013) [Recent Trends in the Labour Markets: Technology, Globalisation and Offshoring]. Ekonomik Yaklasim, 24 (88), 65-100. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.35202



Turabian Style

I. Semih AKCOMAK. 2013. [Recent Trends in the Labour Markets: Technology, Globalisation and Offshoring]. Ekonomik Yaklasim, 24 (88), 65-100. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.35202



Chicago Style

I. Semih AKCOMAK. "[Recent Trends in the Labour Markets: Technology, Globalisation and Offshoring]." Ekonomik Yaklasim 24 (2013), 65-100. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.35202



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

I. Semih AKCOMAK. "[Recent Trends in the Labour Markets: Technology, Globalisation and Offshoring]." Ekonomik Yaklasim 24.88 (2013), 65-100. Print.Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.35202



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

I. Semih AKCOMAK (2013) [Recent Trends in the Labour Markets: Technology, Globalisation and Offshoring]. Ekonomik Yaklasim, 24 (88), 65-100. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.35202