ISSN 1300-1868
 

Original Research (Original Article) 


The Gravity Model in International Trade Theory

Gönül DİNÇER.

Abstract
The Gravity Model is a relatively new model in international trade theory. According to the Model, bilateral trade flows between countries can mainly be explained by their GDP sizes and transportation costs which are varied by the geographical distance between them. The frame of the Gravity Model allows for the testing of the effects of multilateral/bilateral trade agreements and regional integrations on international trade. It also allows for the testing of some social and cultural elements such as the similarity of legal and institutional structure of the countries, common language, and the waiting time for bureaucratic transactions. All of these elements have some effect on the volume of trade flows and the Gravity Model makes it possible to model these elements in the framework of the international trade theory. There are various studies in the related literature which estimate the total effect of transportation costs and trade barriers while some others estimate the trade between blocks as well as the intra-block trade. Most of the results of these studies are consistent which increases the reliability of the model.

Key words: International trade, the gravity model. JEL Classification: F10, F14.



DIŞ TİCARET KURAMINDA ÇEKİM MODELİ

Ozet
Çekim Modeli, dış ticaretin temel belirleyicileri olarak, ticarette bulunan ülkelerin yurtiçi gelir büyüklüklerini ve aralarındaki uzaklığa göre farklılaşan ulaştırma maliyetlerini kabul etmesi bakımından dikkat çeken, görece yeni bir modeldir. Modelin yapısı, uluslararası ticaret anlaşmalarının ve bölgesel bütünleşmelerin etkisini sınamaya da oldukça elverişli olup, ticaret engellerine ve/ veya ticareti serbestleştirmeye yönelik düzenlemelere ilişkin değişkenler modele eklenebilmektedir. Çekim Modeli, salt ekonomik olmayan unsurların dış ticaret üzerindeki etkilerini ölçmeyi de olanaklı kılmaktadır. Söz gelimi, ülkelerin benzer kurumsal ve yasal düzenlemelere sahip olup olmaması, bürokratik işlemlerin süresi, ticaret gerçekleştiren ülkelerin ortak dile sahip olup olmaması gibi unsurların dış ticaret üzerindeki etkilerinin bütüncül bir çerçevede değerlendirilmesini kolaylaştırmaktadır. Alan yazınında yer alan çalışmalarda, Çekim Modeli kullanılarak, diğer kuramlarda genellikle olmadığı varsayılan ulaştırma maliyetlerinin ve ticaret engellerinin dünya ticaretindeki toplam etkisi tahmin edildiği gibi, ekonomik bloklar içerisinde ve bloklar arasında gerçekleşen ticaret akımları da farklı değişkenler kullanılarak çok yönlü biçimde incelenmiştir. Çalışmaların pek çoğunun sonuçlarının birbiriyle örtüşmesi, Modele yönelik güveni pekiştirmektedir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Uluslararası ticaret, çekim modeli. JEL Sınıflaması: F10, F14.


 
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Gonul DINCER. [The Gravity Model in International Trade Theory]. Ekonomik Yaklasim. 2013; 24(88): 1-34. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.35200


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Gonul DINCER. [The Gravity Model in International Trade Theory]. http://www.ekonomikyaklasim.org/?mno=168222 [Access: October 23, 2018]. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.35200


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Gonul DINCER. [The Gravity Model in International Trade Theory]. Ekonomik Yaklasim. (2013), [cited October 23, 2018]; 24(88): 1-34. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.35200



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Gonul DINCER (2013) [The Gravity Model in International Trade Theory]. Ekonomik Yaklasim, 24 (88), 1-34. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.35200



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Gonul DINCER. "[The Gravity Model in International Trade Theory]." Ekonomik Yaklasim 24 (2013), 1-34. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.35200



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Gonul DINCER. "[The Gravity Model in International Trade Theory]." Ekonomik Yaklasim 24.88 (2013), 1-34. Print.Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.35200



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Gonul DINCER (2013) [The Gravity Model in International Trade Theory]. Ekonomik Yaklasim, 24 (88), 1-34. Turkish. doi:10.5455/ey.35200





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