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THE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF TURKISH EXPORTS VIS-À-VIS THE EUROPEAN UNION AND OECD COUNTRIES, 1990-2000

Güzin ERLAT, Haluk ERLAT.

Abstract
We consider the comparative advantage of Turkish exports, using 3-digit SITC Rev.3 data, with the aim of identifying those sectors that have shown an increase in comparative advantage in recent years, the expectation being that this will lead to those sectors which hold the most promise of being the leading export sectors in the future. We used Balassa (1965)’s Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) index for this purpose. The RCA index compares the share of the ith export in a given country’s total exports to the share of that export good in ‘world’ exports. A value greater than unity indicates that the country in question has comparative advantage in that good. We considered comparative advantage with respect to two groups of countries. The first one was the fifteen countries that made up the European Union (EU) during the 1990-2000 period. The second group consisted of the non-EU OECD countries. We grouped the data (and, also, presented the results) first as traditional and non-traditional and then in terms of their technological characteristics. In analysing the empirical results, we first calculated the average RCAs for each 3 digit sector over the period as a whole and over the last three years. We then chose those sectors with average RCA values greater than unity for the period as a whole and/or the last three months. In terms of aggregate results, we found that, for both groups of countries, the non-traditional sectors, all had average RCA values greater than unity in the last three years whereas less than half of the traditional sectors had average RCAs greater than unity for the last three years. It appears that sectors with a promise of increasing comparative advantage lie, primarily, in the non-traditional group.

Key words: Export Performance, Comparative Advantage. JEL Classification: F14



Türk İhraç Mallarının Avrupa Birliği ve OECD Ülkeleri Karşısında Karşılaştırmalı Üstünlüğü, 1990-2000

Özet
Bu çalışmada Türkiye’nin ihracatını karşılaştırmalı üstünlükler açısından ele alıyoruz. Buradaki amacımız son yıllarda karşılaştırmalı üstünlüklerini arttıran sektörleri saptayıp, gelecekte ihracatın önde gelen sektöleri hakkında öngörülerde bulunmaktır. Bunun için, 3-basamaklı SITC Rev.3 verilerini kullanarak, 1990-2000 dönemi için, Balassa (1965)’in Açıklanmış Karşılaştırmalı Üstünlükler (RCA) endeksini hesapladık. RCA endeksi belli bir ülkenin i malında yaptığı ihracatın toplam ihracatı içindeki payı ile söz konusu malın ‘dünyadaki’ ihracatının toplam dünya ihracatı içindeki payını karşılaştırır. Bu endeksin birden büyük bir değer alması, o ülkenin o malda karşılaştırmalı üstünlüğe sahip olduğunu gösterir. Biz iki grup ülke açısından karşılaştırmalı üstünlüğe baktık. İlk grup 1990-2000 döneminde Avrupa Birliğini (AB) oluşturan 15 ülkeden oluşuyor. İkinci grup ise AB-Dışı OECD ülkelerini kapsıyor. Biz verileri ve ampirik sonuçları, sektörleri önce gelenekselgeleneksel olmayan diye, sonra da teknolojik özelliklerine gore sınıflandırdık. Ampirik sonuçları analiz ederken RCA’lerin hem tüm dönem hem de son üç yıl için ortalamalarını hesapladık. Ondan sonra da ortalama RCA değerleri, hem tüm dönem hem de son üç yıl için, birin üstünde olan sektörleri seçtik. Toplulaştırılmış sonuçlar açısından baktığımızda, her iki grup ülke için de, geleneksel olmayan sektörlerin hepsinin ortalama RCA’leri son üç yılda birin üstünde çıkarken, geleneksel sektörlerin ortalama RCA’lerinin yarıdan azı son üç yılda birin üstünde değer almaktaydı. Bundan anlaşıldığı kadarıyla gelecekte, artan karşılaştırmalı üstünlüğe sahip sektörler geleneksel olmayan grubun içinden çıkacaktır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Ihracat Performansı, Karşılaştırmalı Üstünlük. JEL Sınıflaması: F14


 
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REFERENCES
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

ERLAT G, ERLAT H. THE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF TURKISH EXPORTS VIS-À-VIS THE EUROPEAN UNION AND OECD COUNTRIES, 1990-2000. Ekonomik Yaklasim. 2012; 23(Special): 77-106. doi:10.5455/ey.20008



Web Style

ERLAT G, ERLAT H. THE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF TURKISH EXPORTS VIS-À-VIS THE EUROPEAN UNION AND OECD COUNTRIES, 1990-2000. www.scopemed.org/?mno=34389 [Access: June 29, 2017]. doi:10.5455/ey.20008



AMA (American Medical Association) Style

ERLAT G, ERLAT H. THE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF TURKISH EXPORTS VIS-À-VIS THE EUROPEAN UNION AND OECD COUNTRIES, 1990-2000. Ekonomik Yaklasim. 2012; 23(Special): 77-106. doi:10.5455/ey.20008



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

ERLAT G, ERLAT H. THE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF TURKISH EXPORTS VIS-À-VIS THE EUROPEAN UNION AND OECD COUNTRIES, 1990-2000. Ekonomik Yaklasim. (2012), [cited June 29, 2017]; 23(Special): 77-106. doi:10.5455/ey.20008



Harvard Style

ERLAT, G. & ERLAT, H. (2012) THE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF TURKISH EXPORTS VIS-À-VIS THE EUROPEAN UNION AND OECD COUNTRIES, 1990-2000. Ekonomik Yaklasim, 23 (Special), 77-106. doi:10.5455/ey.20008



Turabian Style

ERLAT, Guzin, and Haluk ERLAT. 2012. THE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF TURKISH EXPORTS VIS-À-VIS THE EUROPEAN UNION AND OECD COUNTRIES, 1990-2000. Ekonomik Yaklasim, 23 (Special), 77-106. doi:10.5455/ey.20008



Chicago Style

ERLAT, Guzin, and Haluk ERLAT. "THE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF TURKISH EXPORTS VIS-À-VIS THE EUROPEAN UNION AND OECD COUNTRIES, 1990-2000." Ekonomik Yaklasim 23 (2012), 77-106. doi:10.5455/ey.20008



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

ERLAT, Guzin, and Haluk ERLAT. "THE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF TURKISH EXPORTS VIS-À-VIS THE EUROPEAN UNION AND OECD COUNTRIES, 1990-2000." Ekonomik Yaklasim 23.Special (2012), 77-106. Print. doi:10.5455/ey.20008



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

ERLAT, G. & ERLAT, H. (2012) THE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF TURKISH EXPORTS VIS-À-VIS THE EUROPEAN UNION AND OECD COUNTRIES, 1990-2000. Ekonomik Yaklasim, 23 (Special), 77-106. doi:10.5455/ey.20008



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